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Ruth M. Parker

Ruth M. Parker, MD, MACP

Dr. Parker is Professor of Medicine, Pediatrics and Public Health at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia. She attended Davidson College and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, completed residencies in Internal Medicine and Pediatrics at the University of Rochester, and was a Clinical Scholar at the University of Pennsylvania. For over two decades, her work has focused on research, education, and policy efforts to advance our nation’s health literacy. Her focus is to make the demands and complexities of health and healthcare align with the skills and abilities of people to navigate, understand and use what is needed for health. She is an author of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) and of the definition of health literacy used by Healthy People, the IOM, the NIH, and the Affordable Care Act, as well as many scholarly pieces on health literacy. She is a National Associate of the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences, and served on Advisories to the FDA and PCORI. Dr. Parker served in leadership roles to advance health literacy for professional societies including the AMA and the ACP Foundation. She has consulted with numerous federal and state agencies, professional organizations and members of industry regarding their health literacy efforts. She was a member of the IOM Health Literacy Committee, a member and now Consultant to the Health Literacy Roundtable. She is a member of the Vital Directions Committee of the National Academy of Medicine and the Committee on Reproductive Health Services: Assessing the Safety and Quality of Abortion Care of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine. Dr. Parker has received national awards in recognition of her work, including the Silver Achievement Award from the AAMC, the Richard and Hinda Rosenthal Award from the ACP, the Walter C. Alvarez Award from the American Medical Writers Association, the Cecilia and Lenard National Health Literacy Award, and FDA Advisory Committee Service Award.

Specialties

  • Internal Medicine
  • Pediatrics

Board Certifications

  • ABMS Internal Medicine

Fellowships

  • University of Pennsylvania Health System

Affiliations

  • Emory

Education & Training

  • Medical School: University of North Carolina School of Medicine
  • Internship: Strong Memorial Hospital Rochester
  • Residency: Strong Memorial Hospital Rochester

Honors & Awards

MACP Silver Achievement Award (AAMC)

Richard and Hinda Rosenthal Award (ACP)

ACP Georgia Service Award

FDA Advisory Service Award

Walter C Alverez Award (Am Med Writers Assoc)

National Research Council (Nat Academy of Sciences)

Cecilia and Leonard Doak Health Literacy Award

Publications

Koren, G, Parker, RM. Interpretation of excessive serum concentrations of digoxin in children. Am J Cardiol. 1985; 55(9):1210-4.

Parker, RM, Hoekelman, RA, Napodano, RJ. Illnesses and other causes of unexpected absences from work during residency training. J Med Educ. 1987; 62(12): 959-68.

Asch, DA, Parker, RM. The Libby Zion case: one step forward or two steps backwards? New Engl J Med. 1988; 318(12): 771-5.

Martin, SC, Arnold, RM, Parker, RM. Gender and medical socialization. J Health Soc Behav. 1988; 29: 333-43.

Martin, SC, Parker, RM, Arnold, RM. Careers of women physicians: choices and constraints. West J Med. 1988; 149(6): 758-60.

Siegel, DM, Parker, RM, Gillman, MD, Biro, FM. Demographic features and attitudes of combined internal medicine and pediatric residency program directors. Am J Dis Child. 1988; 142(10): 1104-08.

Asch, D, Parker, RM. Looking at the training of housestaff. New Engl J Med. 1988; 319:718-21.

Arnold, RM, Martin, SC, Parker, RM. Taking care of patients: does it matter whether the physician is a woman? West J Med. 1988; 149(6): 729-33.

Hoekelman, RA, Parker, RM. Variation in lengths of training among residents enrolled in pediatric and internal medicine medical programs. Acad Med. 1990; 65(4): 257-66.

Biro, FM, Gillman, MW, Parker, RM, Siegel, DM, et al. Surveying graduates of combined internal medicine-pediatrics residency programs. Acad Med. 1990; 65(4): 266-71.

Rescorla, L, Parker, RM. Ability, achievement, and adjustment in homeless children. Amer J Orthopsychiatry. 1991; 61(2):210-20.

Parker, RM. Homelessness is like no place. Pride Inst J Long Term Home Health Care. 1991; 10: 4-5.

Parker, RM, Rescorla, LA, Finkelstein, JA, Barnes, N, Holmes, JH, Stolley, PD. A survey of the health of homeless children in Philadelphia shelters. Am J Dis Child. 1991; 145(5):520-6.

McNagny, SE, Parker, RM, Zenilman, JM, Lewis, JS. Urinary leukocyte esterase test: a screening method for the detection of asymptomatic chlamydial and gonococcal infections in men. J Infect Dis. 1992; 165(3): 573-6.

McNagny, SE, Parker, RM. High prevalence of recent cocaine use and the unreliability of patient self-report in an inner-city walk-in clinic. JAMA. 1992; 267(8): 1106-08.

Finkelstein, JA, Parker, RM. Homeless children in America: taking the next step. Am J Dis Child. 1993; 147(5): 520-1.

Biro, FM, Siegel, DM, Parker, RM, Gillman, MW. A comparison of self-perceived competencies in primary care residency graduates. Pediatr Res. 1993; 34(5): 555-9.

Rask, KJ, Williams, MV, Parker, RM, McNagny, SE. Obstacles predicting lack of a regular provider and delays in seeking care for patients at an urban public hospital. JAMA. 1994; 271(24): 1931-3.

Boehnlein, JK, Parker, RM, Arnold, RM, Bosk, CF, Sparr, LF. Medical ethics, cultural values, and capital punishment by lethal injection. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 1995; 23(1):129-34.

Parker, RM, Baker, DW, Williams, MV, Nurss, JR. The test of functional health literacy in adults (TOFHLA): a new instrument for measuring patients' literacy skills. J Gen Intern Med. 1995; 10:537-41.

Nurss, JR, Baker, DW, Davis, TC, Parker, RM, Williams, MV. Difficulties in functional health literacy screening on Spanish-speaking adults. J Reading. 1995; 38: 632-37.

Williams, MV, Parker, RM, Baker, DW, et al. Inadequate functional health literacy among patients at two public hospitals. JAMA. 1995; 274:1677-82.

Parker, RM, Williams, MV, Baker, DW, Nurss, JR. Literacy and contraception: exploring the link. Obstet Gynecol. 1996; 88(3) Supple 1:72S-77S.

Doyle, JP, Parker, RM, Jacobson, TA, McNagny, SE. Breast and cervical cancer screening in an inner city medical walk-in clinic: taking advantage of a missed opportunity. Am J Prev Med. 1996; 12(5): 345-50.

Parikh, NS, Parker, RM, Baker, DW, Williams, MV, Nurss, J. Shame and health literacy: the unspoken connection. Patient Educ Couns. 1996; 27(1): 33-39.

Baker, DW, Parker, RM, Williams, MV, Coates, WC, Pitkin, K. Use and effectiveness of interpreters in an emergency department. JAMA. 1996; 275(10): 783-88.

Baker, DW, Parker, RM, Williams, MV, et al. The health care experience of patients with low literacy. Arch Fam Med. 1996; 5(6): 329-34.

Baker, DW, Parker, RM, Williams, MV, Clark, WS, Nurss, J. The relationship of patient reading ability to self-reported health and use of health services. Am J Public Health. 1997; 87(6):1027-1030.

Williams, M, Baker, D, Parker, RM, Nurss, J. The relationship of functional health literacy to hypertensive and diabetic patients' knowledge of their disease. Arch Intern Med. 1998; 158(2):166-72.

Baker, DW, Parker, RM, Clark, WS. Health literacy and the risk of hospital admission. J Gen Intern Med. 1998; 13:791-98.

Rask, KJ, Williams, MV, McNagny, SE, Parker, R, Baker, DW. Ambulatory health care use by patients in a public hospital emergency department. J Gen Intern Med. 1998; 13(9):614-20.

Jones, DS, McNagny, SE, Williams, MV, Parker, RM, Sawyer, MF, Rask, KJ. Lack of regular source of care among children among children using a public hospital emergency department. Pediatr Emerg Care. 1999; 15(1): 13-16.

Baker, DW, Williams, MV, Parker, RM, Gazmararian JA, Nurss, J. Development of a brief test to measure functional health literacy. Patient Educ Couns. 1999; 38(1): 33-42.

Gazmararian, JA, Parker, R, Baker, DW. Reading skills and family planning knowledge and practices in a low-income managed-care population. Obstet Gynecol. 1999; 93(2):239-44.

Gazmararian, J, Baker, D, Williams, MV, Parker, RM, Scott, TL, Green, DC, Fehrenback, SN, Ren, J, Koplan, JP. Health literacy among Medicare enrollees in a managed care organization. JAMA. 1999; 281(6): 545-51.

Parker RM (chair) Ad Hoc Committee on Health Literacy for the Council on Scientific Affairs: American Medical Association. Health literacy: report of the Council on Scientific Affairs. JAMA. 1999; 281:552-557.

Ratzan, SC, Parker, RM. Introduction. Selden CR, Zorn M, Ratzan SC, Parker RM. In: National Library of Medicine Current Bibliographies in Medicine: Health Literacy. Vol. NLM Pub. No. CBM 2000-1. Bethesda, MD: NIH, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Parker, RM. Health Literacy: a challenge for American patients and their health care providers. Health Promotion International. 15(4): 277-82.

Gazmararian, JA, Baker, DW, Parker, RM, Blazer, DG. A Multivariate analysis of factors associated with depression: Evaluating the role of health literacy as a potential contributor. Arch Intern Med. 2000; 160: 3307-14.

Parker, RM, Jacobson, TA. The role of health literacy in narrowing the treatment gap for hypercholesterolemia. Am J Manag Care. 2000; 6(12): 1340-42.

Parker, RM, Schwartzberg, JG. What patients do and don’t understand: Widespread ignorance has triggered a silent epidemic. Postgrad Med. 2001; 109 (5): 13-16.

Baker, DW, Gazmararian, JA, Sudano, J, Patterson, M, Williams, MV, Parker, RM. Health literacy and performance on the mini-mental state examination (Running title: literacy and performance on the MMSE). Aging Ment Health. 2002; 6(1): 22-9.

Baker, DW, Gazmararian, JA, Williams, MV, Scott, T, Parker, RM, et al, Functional health literacy and the risk of hospital admission among Medicare managed care enrollees. Am J Public Health. 2002; 92(8): 1278-83.

Kaslow, NJ, Thompson, MP, Okun, A, Price, A, Young, S, Bender, M, Wyckoff, S, Parker, RM, et al. Risk and protective factors for suicidal behavior in abused, African American women. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2002; 70(2): 311-19.

Davis, TC, Williams, MV, Marin, E, Parker, RM, Glass, J. Health literacy and cancer communication. CA Cancer J Clin. 2002; 52(3): 134-49.

Williams, MV, Davis, TC, Parker, RM, Weiss, BD. The role of health literacy in patient-physician communication. Fam Med. 2002; 34(5): 383-89.

Parker, RM, Ratzan, SC, Lurie, N. Health literacy: A policy challenge for advancing high-quality health care. Health Aff (Millwood). 2003; 22(4): 147-53.

Parker, RM, Gazmararian, JA. Health literacy: Essential for health communication. J Health Commun. 2003; 8(S1): 116-18.

Baker, DW, Gazmararian, JA, Williams, MV, Scott, T, Parker, RM, Green, D, Ren, J, Peel, J. Health literacy and use of outpatient physician services by Medicare managed care enrollees, J Gen Intern Med. 2003; 19(3); 215-20.

Brownfield, ED, Bernhardt, JM, Phan, JL, Williams, MV, Parker, RM. Direct-to-consumer drug advertisements on network television: An exploration of quantity, frequency, and placement. J Health Commun. 2004; 9(6): 491-97.

Paasche-Orlow, MK, Parker, RM, Gazmararian, JA, Nielson-Bohlman, LT, Rudd, RR. The prevalence of limited health literacy. J Gen Intern Med. 2005; 20(2): 175-184.

Howard, DH, Gazmararian, J, Parker, RM. The impact of low health literacy on the medical costs on medicare managed care enrollees. Am J Med. 2005; 118 (4): 371-77.

Gazmararian, J, Curran, JW, Parker, RM, Bernhardt, JM, Bebono, B. Public health literacy in America: an ethical imperative. Am J of Prev Med. 2005; 28(3): 317-22.

Kaslow, NJ, Sherry, A, Bethea, K, Wyckoff, S, Compton, MT, Grall, MB, Scholl, L, Price, AW, Kellerman, A, Thompson, N, Parker, RM. Social risk and protective factors for suicide attempts in low income African-American men and women. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2005; 35(4): 400-12.

Parker, RM, Kreps, GL. Library outreach: Overcoming health literacy challenges. J of Med Libr Assoc. 2005; 93(4 Suppl): S81-S85.

Davis, TC, Frederickson, DD, Potter, L, Brouillette, R, Bocchini, AC, Williams, MV, Parker, RM. Patient understanding and use of oral contraceptive pills in a southern public health family planning clinic. S Med J. 2006; 99(7): 713-18.

Davis, TC, Wolf, MS, Bass, PF, Middlebrooks, M, Kennan, E, Savory, S, Parker, RM, et al. Low literacy impairs comprehension of prescription drug warning labels, J Gen Intern Med.2006; 21(8):847-51.

Parker, RM, Kindig, DA. Beyond the IOM health literacy report: Are the recommendations being taken seriously? J Gen Intern Med. 2006; 21(8): 891-92.

Wolf, MS, Davis, TC, Tilson, HH, Bass, PF, Parker, RM. Misunderstanding of prescription drug warning labels among patients with low literacy skills: a call to action. Am J Health System Pharm. 2006; 63(11):1048-55.

Davis, TC, Wolf, MS, Bass, PF, Thompson, JA, Tilson HH, Newberger, M, Parker, RM. To err really is human: Literacy and misunderstanding of prescription drug labels. Ann Intern Med. 2006; 145:887-94.

Wolf, MS, Davis, TC, Shrank, WH, Neuberger, M, Parker, RM. A critical review of FDA-approved medication guides. Patient Educ Couns. 2006; 62(3): 316-22.

Ratzan, S, Parker, RM. Health literacy: Identification and response. J Health Commun. 2006; 11(8): 713-15.

Davis, TC, Wolf, MD, Bass, PF, Thompson, BA, Tilson, HH, Neuberger, M, Parker, RM. Literacy and misunderstanding prescription drug labels. Ann Intern Med. 2006; 145(12): 887-94.

Parker, RM. What an informed patient means for the future of healthcare. Pharmacoeconomics. 2006; 24 (suppl 2): 29-33 .

Wolf, MS, Davis, TC, Shrank, W, Rapp, DN, Bass, PF, Connor, UM, Clayman, M, Parker, RM. To err is human: Patient misinterpretations of prescription drug label instructions. Patient Educ Couns. 2007; 67(3): 293-300.

Wolf, MS, Davis, TC, Parker, RM. The emerging field of health literacy research. Am J Health Behav. 2007:31(Suppl 1):S3-S5.

Lurie, N, Parker, RM. Moving health literacy from the Individual to the community. Am J Health Behav. 2007; 31(Suppl 1): S6-S7.

Wolf, MS, William, MV, Parker, RM, Parikh, NS, Nowlan, AW, Baker, DW. Patients’ shame and attitudes toward discussing the results of literacy screening. J Health Commun. 2007; Dec 12(8): 721-32.

Parker, RM, Wolf, MS, Kirsch, I. Preparing for an epidemic of limited health literacy: Weathering the perfect storm. J Gen Intern Med. 2008; Aug 23(8): 1273-6.

Webb, J, Davis, TC, Bernadella, P, Clayman, M, Parker, RM, Adler, DA, Wolf, MS. Patient centered approach for improving prescription drug warning labels. Patient Educ Couns. 2008; Sep; 72(3): 443-9.

Davis, TC, Federman, AD, Bass, PF, Jackson, RH, Middlebrooks, M, Parker, RM, Wolf, MS. Improving patient understanding of prescription drug label instructions. J Gen Intern Med. 2009; Jan 24(1):57-62.

Wolf, MS, Shekelle, P, Choudry, NK, Agnew-Blais, J, Parker, RM, Shrank, WH. Variability of pharmacy interpretations of physician prescriptions. Med Care. 2009: 47(3):370-3.

Paasche-Orlow, MK, Jacob, DM, Hochhauser, M, Parker, RM. National survey of patients’ bill of rights statutes. J Gen Intern Med. 2009; 24(4): 489-94.

Bailey, SC, Shrank, WH, Parker, RM, Wolf, MS. Medication label improvement: An issue at the intersection of health literacy and patient safety. J Commun Healthcare. 2009; 2(3)294-307.

Bailey SC, Pandit AU, Yin S, Federman A, Davis TC, Parker RM, Wolf MS. Predictors of misunderstanding pediatric liquid medication instructions. Fam Med. 2009; 41(10):715-21.

Parker, RM, Wolf, MS, Jacobson, KL, Wood, AJ. Risk of Confusion in dosing Tamiflu oral suspension in children. N Engl J Med. 2009; 361(19):1912-13.

Bailey, SC, Persell, SD, Jacobson, KL, Parker, RM, Wolf, MS. Comparison of handwritten and electronically generated prescription drug instructions. Ann Pharmacother. 2009; 43(1): 151-2.

Druss, BG, von Esenwein, SA, Compton, MT, Rask, KJ, Zhao, L, Parker, RM. A randomized trial of medical care management for community mental health settings: The Primary Care Access, Referral, and Evaluation (PCARE) Study. Am J Psychiatry. 2010; 167(2): 151-9.

Wolf MS, Davis TC, Bass PF, Curtis LA, Linquist LA, Webb JA, Bocchini MV, Bailey SC, Parker RM. Improving prescription drug warnings to promote patient comprehension. Arch Intern Med. 2010; 170(1): 50-6.

Yin, SH, Wolf, MS, Dryer, BP, Sanders, LM, Parker, RM. Evaluation of consistency in dosing directions and measuring devices for pediatric nonprescription liquid medications. JAMA. 2010; 304(23): 2595-602.

Yin, HS, Mendelsohn, AL, Wolf, MS, Parker, RM, Rierman, A, vanSchaick, L, Bazan, IS, Kline, MD, Dreyer, BP. Parent medication administration errors: Role of dosing instruments and health literacy. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010; 164(2):181-6.

Shrank, WH, Parker, RM, Davis, T, Pandit, AU, Knox, JP, Moraras, P, Wolf, MS. Rationale and design of a randomized trial to evaluate an evidence-based prescription drug label on actual medication use. Contemp Clin Trials. 2010; 31:564-71.

Macek, MD, Haynes, D, Wells, W, Bauer-Leffler, S, Cotton, PA, Parker, RM. Measuring conceptual health knowledge in the context of oral health literacy: Preliminary results. J Public Health Dent. 2010; 70(3): 197-204.

Kellerman, AK, Isakov, AP, Parker, RM, Foldy, S. Web-based self-triage of Influenza-like Illness during the 2009 H1N1 influezna pandemic. Ann Emerg Med. 2010; Sept 56(3): 288-294. 85. Parker, RM, Ratzan, S. Health Literacy: A second decade of distinctions for Americans. J Health Commun. 2010; 15 Suppl 2: 20-33. 86. Wolf, MS, Curtis, LM, Waite, KR, Bailey, SC, Hedlund, LA, Davis, TC, Shrank, WH, Parker, RM, Wood, AJ. Helping Patients Simplify and Safely Use Complex Prescription Regimens. Arch Intern Med. 2011; 171(4):300-305.

Macek, MD, Manski, MC, Schneiderman, MT, Meakins,SJ, Haynes, D, Wells ,W, Bauer-Leffler, S, Cotton, PA, Parker, RM. Knowledge of oral health issues among low-income Baltimore adults: a pilot study. J Dental Hygiene. 2011; Winter 85(1): 49-56.

Wolf, MS, Davis, TC, Curtis, LM, Webb, JA, Bailey, SC, Shrank, WH, Lindquist, L, Ruo, B, Bocchini, MV, Parker, RM, Wood, AJ. Effect of standardized, patient-centered label instructions to improve comprehension of prescription drug use. Med Care. 2011; 49(1): 96-100.

Martin, LT, Parker, RM. Insurance expansion and health literacy. JAMA. 2011; 306(8): 874-5.

Freedman, AM, Miner, KR, Echt, KV, Parker, RM, Cooper, HLF. Amplifying diffusion of health information in low literate populations through adult education health literacy classes. J Health Commun. 2011; 16(Suppl 3): 119-33.

Carlisle, A, Jacobson, KL, DiFrancesco, LD, Parker, RM. Health literacy in the pharmacy: practical strategies to improve communication with patients. P T. 2011; 36(9): 576-89.

Parker, RM, Dmitrieva, E, Frolov, S, Gazmararian, JA. Text4Baby in the US and Russia: An opportunity for understanding how mHealth impacts maternal and child health. J Health Commun. 2012; 17 (Suppl 1): 30-6.

King, JP, Davis, TC, Bailey, SC, Jacobson, KL, Hedlund, LA, DiFrancesco LD, Parker, RM, Wolf, MS. Developing consumer-centered nonprescription drug labeling: A study in acetaminophen. Am J Prev Med. 2011; 40(6):593-8.

Freedman, AM, Echt KV, Cooper, HLF, Miner, KR, Parker, RM. Better learning through instructional science: A health literacy case study in “How to teach so learners can learn”. Health Promot Pract. 2012; 13(5):648-56.

Parker, RM. An update from the IOM health literacy roundtable: Health literate practices can facilitate state health insurance exchange communication. J Health Commun. 2012; 17(3):372-5.

Brach, C, Dreyer, B, Schyve, P, Hernandez, LM, Baur, C, Lemerise, AJ, Parker, RM. Attributes of a health literate organization. IOM Discussion Paper. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine. January 2012.

Yin, HS, Parker, RM, Wolf, MS, Mendelsohn, AL, Sanders, LM, Vivar, KL, et al. Health literacy assessment of labeling of pediatric nonprescription medications: Examination of characteristics that may impair parent misunderstanding. Academic Pediatrics. 2012; 12(4): 288-96.

Parker, RM. A “Tip of the Hat” to the Journal for its role in advancing health literacy. J Health Commun. 2012; 17:377–9.

Parker, RM, Hernandez, LM. What makes an organization health literate? J Health Commun. 2012; 17(5):624-7.

Parker, RM, Hernandez, LM. Oral health literacy: a workshop. J Health Commun. 2012; 17(10):1232-4.

Gazmararian, JA, Yang, B, Elon, L, Graham, M, Parker, RM. Successful enrollment in Text4Baby more likely with higher health literacy. J Health Commun. 2012; 17 Suppl 3:303-11. doi:10.1080/10810730.2012.712618.

Wolf, MS, King, J, Wilson, EA, Curtis, LM, Bailey, SC, Duhig, J, Russell, A, Bergeron, A, Daly, A Parker, RM, et al. Usability of FDA-approved medication guides. J Gen Intern Med. 2012; 27(12):1714-20.

Wolf, MS, King, J, Jacobson, K, Di Francesco, L, Bailey, SC, Mullen, R, McCarthy, D, Serper, M, Davis, TC, Parker, RM. Risk of unintentional overdose with non-prescription acetaminophen products. J Gen Intern Med. 2012; 27(12): 1587-93.

McCarthy, DM, Davis, TC, King, JP, Mullen, RJ, Bailey, SC, Serper, M, Jacobson, KL, Parker, RM, et al. Take-wait-stop: A patient-centered strategy for writing PRN medication instructions. J Health Commun. 2013; 18(sup1): 40-8.

Parker, RM, Hernandez, LM, Wu, VY. Advancing a shared conversation to enhance health care enrollment in the United States — A timely opportunity and challenge for health literacy. J Health Commun. 2013; 18(9): 1021-3.

Parker, RM, Labrecque, CA, Candler, SG, Newell-Amato, D, Messler, J, Wolf, M, et al. Communicating through the arts: lessons for medicine and public health. J Health Commun. 2013; 18(2): 139-45. doi: 10.1080/10810730.2013.763706.

Serper M, McCarthy DM, Patzer RE, King JP, Bailey SC, Smith SG, Parker RM, et al. What patients think doctors know: Beliefs about provider knowledge as barriers to safe medication use. Patient Educ Couns. 2013; 93(2): 306-11. doi:10.1016/j.pec.2013.06.030. Epub 2013 Jul 26.

Patel, KK, West, ML, Hernandez, LM, Wu, VY, Wong , WF, Parker, RM. Helping consumers understand and use health insurance in 2014. Discussion Paper. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine. May 29, 2013.

Patel, K, Parker, RM, Villarruel, A, Wong, W. Amplifying the voice of the underserved in the implementation of the Affordable Care Act. IOM Discussion Paper. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine. June 21, 2013.

Wu, VY, Jacobson, K L, Wong, WF, Patel, KK. , Hernande , LM, Isham, GJ, Parker, RM. Let’s Ask 4: Questions for consumers and providers about health insurance. 2014; IOM Discussion Paper. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine.

Wolf MS, Seligman H, Davis TC, Fleming DA, Curtis LM, Pandit AU, Parker RM, et al. Clinic-based versus outsourced implementation of a diabetes health literacy intervention. J Gen Intern Med. 2014; 29(1): 59-67. doi: 10.1007/s11606-013-2582-2. Epub 2013 Sep 4.

Gazmararian, JA, Elon L, Yang B, Graham M, Parker RM. Text4baby program: An opportunity to reach underserved pregnant and postpartum women? Matern Child Health J. 2014; 18: 223-32.

Pandit AU, Bailey SC, Curtis LM, Seligman HK, Davis TC, Parker RM, Schillinger D, et al. Disease-related distress, self-care and clinical outcomes among low-income patients with diabetes. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2014; 68(6): 557-64. doi:10.1136/jech-2013-203063.

Poorman, E, Gazmararian, J, Elon, L, Parker, RM. Is health literacy related to health behaviors and cell phone usage patterns among the text4baby target population? A sample survey in 2 WIC clinics. Arch Public Health. 2014; 72:13.

Poorman, E, Gazmararian, J, Parker, RM, Yang, B, Elon, L. Use of text messaging for maternal and infant health: A systematic review of the literature. J Matern Child Health. 2015; 19(5): 969-89. doi: 10.1007/s10995-014-1595-8.

Pandit, AU, Bailey, SC, Curtis, LM, Seligman, HK., Davis, TC, Parker, RM, et al. Disease-related distress, self-care and clinical outcomes among low-income patients with diabetes. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2014; 68(6): 557-64.

Jacobson, KL, Parker, RM. 2014; Health Literacy Principles: Guidelines for making information understandable, useful, and navigable. IOM Discussion Paper, Washington DC. Retrieved at: https://iom.edu/~/media/HealthLiteracyGuidance.pdf

Bailey, SC, O’Conor R, Bojarski, EA, Mullen, R, Patzer, RE, Vicencio, D, Jacobson, KL, Parker, RM, Wolf, MS. Literacy disparities in patient access and health-related use of Internet and mobile technologies. Health Expect. 2015; 18(6): 3079-87.

Macek, MD, Haynes, D, Wells, W, Cotton, PA, Parker, RM. Pediatric oral health literacy among Baltimore adults. J Theory Practice Dental Public Health. 2014; 2(1 & 2): 2-10.

Goldberg, AB, Ratzan, SC, Jacobson, KL, Parker, RM. Addressing ebola and other outbreaks: A communication checklist for global health leaders, policy makers and practitioners. J Health Commun. 2015; 20(2): 121-2.

Parker, RM, Wolf MS. Health literate equates to patient-centered. J Health Commun. 2015;20(12): 1367-1368.

McCarthy, DM, Cameron, KA, King, JP, Mullen, RJ, Bailey, SC, Jacobson, KL, Di Francesco, LD, Davis, TC, Parker, RM, Wolf, MS. Patient recall of health care provider counseling for opioid-acetaminophen prescriptions. Pain Med. 2014; Oct 15(10):1750-6.

Wolf, MS, Bailey, SC, Serper, M, Smith, M, Davis, TC, Russell, AL, Manzoor, BS, Belter, L, Parker, RM, Lambert, B. Comparative effectiveness of patient-centered strategies to improve FDA medication guides. Med Care. 2014; Sep; 52(9):781-9.

Parker RM, Wu V, Patel K. Successfully engaging hard-to-reach populations in health insurance: a focu on outreach, sign up and retention, and use. IOM commissioned paper, 2015. https://iom.nationalacademies.org/~/media/Files/Activity%20Files/PublicHealth/HealthLiteracy/Commissioned-Papers/Engaging_Consumers_Insurance.pdf?la=en

Patel K, Parker R, Wu V. and Ruth Parker with Victor Wu as another co-author. Getting Enrolled is not Enough: The Importance of Teaching Consumers How to Use Health Insurance. https://healthaffairs.org/blog/2015/10/19/getting-enrolled-isnt-enough-the-importance-of-teaching-consumers-how-to-use-health-insurance/#comment-1732465

King, JP, McCarthy, DM, Serper, M, Jacobson, KL, Mullen, RJ, Parker, RM, Wolf, MS. Variability in Acetaminophen Labeling Practices: A Missed Opportunity to Enhance Patient Safety. J of Med Tox, 2015; 11(4): 410-14.

Macek, M, Atchison, K, Watson, M, Holtzman, J, Wells, W, Braun, B, Aldoory, L, Messadi, D, Gironda, M, Haynes, D, Parker, RM, Chen, H, Cohen, L, Coller, S, Richard, J. Assessing health literacy and oral health: descriptive findings of a multi-site investigation. J Public Health Dentistry, 2016; 76(4):303-313.

Parker, RM, Bakken, S, Wolf, MS. Getting it right with the predictive medicine initiative: the role of health literacy. NAM Perspective, Washington DC, 2016. https://nam.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Getting-it-Right-with-the-Precision-Medicine-Initiative-the-Role-of-Health-Literacy.pdf

Yin HS, Parker RM,Sanders LM, et al. Effect of medication label units of measure on parent choiceo f dosing tool: a randomized experiment. AcadPed.2016;16(8):734-41.

Yin HS, Parker RM, Sanders LM, et al. Liquid medication errors and dosing tools: a randomized controlled experiment. Pediatrics. 2016 138 (4): 1-11.

Macek M, Atchison K, Wells W, Haynes D, Parker R, Azzo S. Oral health conceptual knowledge and its relationship with oral health outcomes: findings from a multi-site health literacy study. Comm Dent and Oral Epi 2017; 45(4):323-329.

Macek K M, Atchison K, Wells W, Haynes D, Parker R, Chen H. Did you know Medicare doesn’t usually include a dental benefit? Findings from a multi-site investigation of oral health literacy. J Publ H Dent . 2017; 77(2):95-98.

Tang P, Smith M, Adler-Milstein J, Delbanco T, Downs S, Mallya G, Ness D, Parker R, Sands D. The democratization of health care: a vital direction for health and health health care. NAM Perspective, Washington DC, 2016. https://nam.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/The-Democratization-of-Health-Care.pdf

Wolf MS, Davis TC, Curtis, LM, Bailey SC, Knox JP, BergeronA, Abbet M, Shrank WH, Parker RM, Wood AJJ. A patient-centered prescription drug label to promote appropriate medication use and Adherence. JGenIntMed. 2016; 13(12):1482-1489.

Yin, HS, Parker RM, Sanders LM, Mendelsohn AL, Dreyer BP, Bailey S, Patel DA, Jimenez JJ, Kim KY, Jacobson K, Smith MCJ, Hedlund L, Maness L, Meyers N, McFadden T, Wolf MS. Pictograms, Units, dosing tools and parent medication errors: a randomized study. Pediatrics. 2017; 140(1) pli: e20163237.

Torres A, Parker RM, Sanders LM, Wolf MS, Bailey S, Patel DA, Jimenez JJ, Kim KY, Yin HS. Parent preferences and perceptions of mLs and teaspoons: Role of health literacy and experience. Academic Pediatrics, Accepted for publication, 2017.

Dzau V, McClellan M, McGinnis M, Burke S, Coye M, Diaz A, Daschle T, Frist W, Gaines M, Hamburg M , Henney J, Kumanyika S, Leavitt M, Parker R, Sandy L, Schaeffer L, Steele G, Thompson P, Zerhouni E. Vital directions for health and healthcare—priorities from a National Academy of Medicine initiative. JAMA, 2017; 11;317(14):1461-1470.

Parker RM, Ike JD. Health Literacy and the arts—an intersection worth exploring. NAMP erspective; Washington DC, 2017 https://nam.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Health-Literacy-and-the-Arts.pdf

Harris LM, Dreyer BP, Mendelsohn AL, Bailey SC, Sanders LM, Wolf MS, Parker RM, Patel DA, Kim KYA, Jimenez JJ, Jacobson K, Smith M, Yin HS. Liquid Medication Dosing Erros by Hispanic Parents: Role of Health Literacy and English Proficiency. Acad Pediatr. 2017; 17(40):403-140.

Bailey SC, Wismer GA, Parker RM, Walton SM, Wood AJJ, Wallia A, Brokenshire SA, Infanzon AC, Curtis LM, Kwasny MJ, Wolf MS. Development and rationale for a multifactorial, randomized controlled trial to test strategies to promote adherence to complex drug regimens among older adults. Contem Clin Trials. 2017: 62:21-26.